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Quantities, Sizes

NOTE: The first set of characters is in the traditional form; the second set is in simplified form.

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big, bigger, biggest :: dà, gèng dà, zuì dà :: 大,更大,最大 / 大,更大,最大

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gallon :: jiā-lún :: 加侖 / 加仑

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gram :: kè :: 克 / 克

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kilogram :: gōng-jīn :: 公斤 / 公斤

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liter/litre :: shēng :: 升 / 升

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medium :: zhōng :: 中 / 中

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ounce :: àng-sī :: 盎司 / 盎司

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pint :: pǐn-tuō :: 品脫 / 品脱

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pound :: yīng-bàng :: 英鎊 / 英镑

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quart :: kuā-tuō :: 夸脫 / 夸脱

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small, smaller, smallest :: xiǎo, gèng xiǎo, zuì xiǎo :: 小,更小,最小 / 小,更小,最小

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Money

NOTE: The first set of characters is in the traditional form; the second set is in simplified form.

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Renminbi (RMB)/Yuan :: rén-mín-bì/yuán :: 人民幣/元 / 人民币/元

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Hong Kong Dollar (HK$) :: gǎng-yuán :: 港元 / 港元

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New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) :: xīn tái bì (yuán) :: 新台幣 / 新台币

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US Dollar ($) :: měi-yuán :: 美元 / 美元

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Euro (€) :: ōu-yuán :: 歐元 / 欧元

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GBP (£) :: yīng-bàng :: 英鎊 / 英镑

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(small) change :: líng-qián :: 零錢 / 零钱

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cash :: xiàn-jīn :: 現金 / 现金

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credit card  :: xìn-yòng-kǎ :: 信用卡 / 信用卡

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Measure Words and Numbers

Measure Words

In Chinese, different measure words are used depending on the noun. It is used after the number and before the noun, for example, sān (number) gè (measure word) píng-guǒ (noun) (three apples).

Common measure words:

NOTE: The first set of characters is in the traditional form; the second set is in simplified form.

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個 / 个 :: gè :: general use, or when you don’t know the correct measure word

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杯 / 杯 :: bēi :: cup (water, coffee, etc.)

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片 / 片 :: piàn :: slice (bread, pizza, etc.)

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塊 / 块 :: kuài :: chunk, irregular shaped piece (cake, watch, etc.)

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份 / 份 :: fèn :: portion (French fries, etc.)

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碗 / 碗 :: wăn :: bowls (rice, noodles, soup, etc.)

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瓶 / 瓶 :: píng :: bottle (beer, soda, etc.)

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包 / 包 :: bāo :: packet (popcorn, cigarettes, etc.)

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Numbers

1 :: yī :: 一

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2 :: èr/liǎng * :: 兩 / 两

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3 :: sān :: 三

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4 :: sì :: 四

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5 :: wǔ :: 五

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6 :: liù :: 六

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7 :: qī :: 七

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8 :: bā :: 八

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9 :: jiǔ :: 九

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10 :: shí :: 十

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11 :: shí-yī :: 十一

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12 :: shí-èr :: 十二

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13 :: shí-sān :: 十三

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14 :: shí-sì :: 十四

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15 :: shí-wǔ :: 十五

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16 :: shí-liù :: 十六

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17 :: shí-qī :: 十七

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18 :: shí-bā :: 十八

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19 :: shí-jiǔ :: 十九

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20 :: èr-shí :: 二十

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21 :: èr-shí yī :: 二十一

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22 :: èr-shí èr :: 二十二

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23 :: èr-shí sān :: 二十三

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24 :: èr-shí sì :: 二十四

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25 :: èr-shí wǔ :: 二十五

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30 :: sān-shí :: 三十

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40 :: sì-shí :: 四十

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50 :: wǔ-shí :: 五十

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100 :: yī bǎi :: 一百

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500 :: wǔ bǎi :: 五百

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1000 :: yī qiān :: 一千

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* When using the number “two” with a measure word and a noun, use the word “liǎng” instead of “èr”, for example, liǎng bēi kā-fēi (two cups of coffee).

Chinese Written Form, Tones and Pronunciation

Traditional Chinese Characters/Simplified Chinese Characters

The traditional form of written Chinese is used in Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. The simplified form of written Chinese is used in China and Singapore. The characters in the English – Chinese Food Mini (China) guide are in the simplified form. The characters in the English – Chinese Food Mini (Taiwan) guide are in the traditional form. On the version you are reading on FoodMinis.COM, both versions are provided – first the traditional form and then the simplified form.

The Four Tones

First tone – high level (ex. sān)

Second tone – rising (ex. tái)

Third tone – falling, then rising (ex. wǒ)

Fourth tone – falling (ex. piàn)

Please view this online resource for a quick guide on pronouncing the tones:

www.foodminis.com/mandarin/tones

Pronunciation

Pronunciation of initials:

b : as in [spit]

p : as in [pay]

m : as in [may]

f : as in [fair]

d : as in [stop]

t : as in [take]

n : as in [nay]

l : as in [lay]

g : as in [skill]

k : as in [kay]

h : as in [hay]

j : as in [hatch]

q : as in [cheek]

x : as in [she]

zh : as in [junk]

ch : as in [church]

sh : as in [shirt]

r : as in [ray]

z : as in [reads]

c : as in [hats]

s : as in [say]

w : as in [way]

y : as in [yea]

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Pronunciation of finals with zero initial:

-i : a buzzed continuation of the consonant following z-, c-, s-, zh-, ch-, sh- or r-. (In all other words, -i has the sound of [bee])

a : as in [father]

e : similar to [duh]

ai : like [eye] but lighter

ei : as in [hey]

ao : approximately as in [cow]

ou : as in [so]

an : as in [bun]

en : as in [taken]

ang : as in the German [Angst]

eng : like e in [taken] but with ng added

er : similar to the sound in [bar]

____________________

Pronunciation of finals beginning with i- (ex. yi-ge):

i : as in [bee]

ia : as in [yard]

ie : similar to the initial sound in [yet]

iao : as in [i] + [ao]

iu : as in [i] + [ou]

ian : as in [yen]

in : as in [i] + [n]

iang : as in [i] + [ang]

ing : as in [i] + [ng]

____________________

Pronunciation of finals beginning with u- (ex. wu-fu):

u : as in [boo!]

ua : as in [u] + [a]

uo, o : as in [u] + [o] where the [o] is pronounced shorter and lighter

uai : as in [why]

ui : as in [u] + [ei]

uan : as in [u] + [an]

un : like the [on] in [won]

uang : as in [u] + [ang]

ong : starts with the vowel sound in [book] and ends

with the sound in, as in [sing]

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Pronunciation of finals beginning with ü- (ex. yun):

u, ü : as in German [über] or French [lune]

ue, üe : as [ü] + [ê]; the ü is short and light

uan : as [ü] + [ê] + [n]

un : as [ü] + [n]

iong : as [i] + [ong]

____________________

Interjections:

ê : as in [bet]

o : approximately as in [office] in a British accent

io : as [i] + [o]

Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinyin

English-Chinese FoodMini – Introduction

Any tourist, traveler, Western business person or foreign expat can attest to the occasional challenge ordering food in China or Taiwan.English – Chinese FoodMini

Unless you’re in a five-star restaurant or pointing at a picture of a hamburger at some fast-food joint, you may find it difficult to figure out exactly what you’re going to get, or to get what you really want.

This mini food dictionary and phrase book aims to make the process somewhat less confusing.

China is a vast country; it is therefore no surprise that you’ll find a wide variety of local cuisines and delicacies. Use the Regional Cuisines and Regional Dishes & Delicacies sections to explore the tastes of the “Eight Culinary Traditions of China.” (I included some dishes from the area of Xinjiang, not traditionally counted as one of the “Eight.”) Taiwan also has a lot to offer in terms of local cuisine. Use the Taiwanese Dishes, Delicacies, Desserts & Beverages section to explore local tastes in Taiwan.

About the Romanization

Since 1982, Hanyu Pinyin has become the international standard system to transcribe Chinese characters into the Roman alphabet. This is the system followed in this booklet. (To make it easier on the eye and avoid confusion, I use hyphens to separate the syllables of a romanized word, although this is not the custom in Hanyu Pinyin.)

Correct pronunciation of Mandarin Chinese words can be a daunting challenge, especially when trying to wrap your tongue around the four tones (some other dialects have even more!). These tones have the function of clarifying the meaning of words, since there are many similar-sounding words in Chinese.

In romanized form, the four tones are indicated by tone marks or numbers. The former is used throughout this booklet, ex. miàn-bāo indicates the first character is pronounced in the fourth tone, and the second character in the first tone. When no number or tone is indicated, the word or syllable is toneless.

English-Chinese FoodMini – Contents

Introduction: About the Romanization · Traditional Chinese Characters/Simplified Chinese Characters · The Four Tones · Pronunciation · Measure Words · Numbers · Money · Quantities & Sizes · Time & Calendar · Pronouns · Basic Verbs · Colors · Polite Phrases

Food Phrases

Basic Food Vocabulary

Food-Related Vocabulary

Drinks

Fruit

Vegetables

Meats

Seafood & Other Fish

Desserts & Snacks

Condiments & Other Extras

Cooking Methods

In The Kitchen: Ingredients For Baking & Cooking

In The Kitchen: Spices

In The Kitchen: Tools & Utensils

National Cuisines

Most Common Chinese Food

Taiwan: Dishes, Delicacies, Desserts & Beverages

China: Regional Cuisines

China: Regional Dishes & Delicacies

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